The Economics of Sex Differentials, 1974, page 7

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          - unlikely that geographic or occupational immobility has increased over time;'

women's long—term commitment to labor market activity has increased along with

L., 0. -, -.y

.7.

The fact that women seeking employment are largely limited to "feminine"
occupations narrows their options and raises the rate of female unemployment.

Thus, there are-inn: three factors that raise the unemployment rate

of women: (1) geographic and occupational immobility, (2) excessive inter~labor
force movement, and (3) discrimination and occupation segregation. In

weighing the relative importance of these three forces, we should keep in

mind that we should be able to explain not only the high rate of unemployment ’ ' *g‘gjr
among women, but also the widening gap between the unemployment rates of
men and women as female labor force participation has risen over time.‘ The p S fill
labor force participation rate of women, which was only 31.8% in 1947, had ‘ ilgV; ‘E
risen to 43.9% in l972,and continues its upward trend? Simultaneously, the

relative unemployment situation of women has worsened. It is highly

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Beth Niemi, "Geographic Immobility and Labor Force Mobility: A Study of
Female Unemployment,” in Cynthia B. Lloyd (ed.) Sex, Discrimination and

the Division of Labor (New York: Columbia University Press, forthcoming
in  o

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