The Economics of Sex Differentials, 1974, page 5

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          iof the proportion of all individuals of working age (16 and over) in the‘.

sample found to be employed or unemployed. The total labor force is thefl\
simply derived by adding the estimated total number of empkyed workers and
unemployed workers. The labor force participation rate is a percentage
derived by dividing the labor force by the population of working age. The
unemployment rate tells us what percentage of the labor force is unemployed,
and is derived by dividingunemployment by the total labor force. Labor
force, employment and unemployment statistics are all available for a

wide range of subgroups within the total population, classified by such

characteristics as age, sex, race and marital status. The table below

‘contains the annual average unemployment rates for men and women since 1960.

UNEMPLOYMENT RATESBY SEX, 1960-1972

Year Men Women
1960 5.4 5.9
1961 6.4 7.2
1962 5.2 6.2
1963 5.2 6.5
1964 4.0 6.2
1965 ' 4.0 5.5
1966 3.2 4.8
1967 3.1 5.2
1968‘ 2.9 4.8
1969 2.8 4.7
1970 4.4 5.9
1971 5.3 6.9
1972 4.9 6.6

Source: Manpower Report of the President (Washington, D.C.: G.P.0.,
March 1973), Table A-1, p. 127.

The relatively high rate of female unemployment can be at least partly
explained in terms of differences in mobility between the sexes. Two types
of mobility must be distinguished: (1) vintra-labor force mobility, which
is movement from one job to another within the labor force: and (2) inter—labor
force mobility, which is movement in and out of the labor force. Too little

intra-labor force mobility and too much inter labor force mob'1't b th
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