The Economics of Sex Differentials, 1974, page 6

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          ‘female unemployment rate.

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contribute to the high rate of female unemployment. when they become

unemployed, women are less likely than men to be able to move to where
their best job opportunities are aglable because of their other family
commitmentso Thgggeographic and occupational immobility makes it harder
for them to find jobs, and accounts for some of the female~male
unemployment differential.

A more important factor is the extensive movement of women into and "V“ a

out of the labor force. Women clearly exhibit more inter-labor force

mobility? and consequently more total mobility than men. Thus at any point


in time a relatively large number of women will have just entered the labor _ 5,gf3

force and be searching for jobs, and the effect of this is to increase the

Direct discrimination against women may also be a significant factor


in determining their unemployment situation. The "over-crowding" hypothesis
points out that women have been and continue to be largely segregated in

certain clerical and service occupations. The occupational segregation



of men and women is certainly substantial. For example, in 1960 47% of

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all women workers were employed in occupations in which at least 80% of the.

workers in the occupation were female; while only 2% of employed men were

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in these same occupations. On the other hand, only 20% of employed women
were in occupations in which they represented less than 33% of total

employment, while almost 90% of employed men were in these same occupations3V

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2. One index of labor force turnover is the ratio of the proportion of the )~‘

population who were in the labor force at any time during the year to

the average labor force participation rate of the populigi ntfgr that

year. Using this measure, labor force turnover for w§menK§élfieen 25-30%

during the lasiififteen years was opposed to roughly, 2% for men.

See Beth Niemi, "The Female—Male Differential In Unemployment Rates",

Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Vol. 27, No. 3 (April l974),
pp. 334-37.

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3. Harriet Zellner, "The Determinants of Occupational Segregation," in
Cynthia B. Lloyd (ed) Sex, Discrimination and the Division of Labor-
(New York: Columbia Univgrs

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ity Press, forthcoming in 1975).

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