The Economics of Sex Differentials, 1974, page 4

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          ' unemployment. Familiarity with the data collection system and the set of if.

'interviews with a randomly selected sample of approximately 47,000 households.'“

—as are persons on layoff waiting for recall and those waiting to start a

Most of the attention given to economic inequality between sexes; 1ik¢
this discussion so far, has concentrated on the earnings gap. A complete
understanding of the economic disadvantages to which women are subject

requires that equally careful attention be given to the sex differential

.in unemployment rates. Two aspects of this differential required

explanation: (1) the fact that the female unemployment rate has been
consistently higher than the male rate, and (2) the fact that recently
this gap has been widening, at the same time that the female labor force

participation rate has been rising.


Obviously, any useful analysis of these phenomena must begin with a

clear understanding of the concepts of labor force participation and _‘ fl"{d


definitions used in measuring these key labor market phenomena is essential.


Data on total population, employment and unemployment are collected

monthly by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, and the results are:publishedA_


in the periodical Employment and Earningsgby the Bureau of Labor Statisticsf

of the U.S. Department of Labor. This information is gathered via personal

Each respondent is questioned about his or her employment status during the
previous week. All those who did any work for pay or profit or did as much
as 15 hours UF unpaid work in a family enterprise are classified as employed,
as are persons who had jobs from which they were temporarily absent because
of illness, vacation or other personal reasons. All those who made efforts
to find work during the preceding four weeks, but did not have a job and

were available for work during the survey week, are classified as unemployed,"

new job within the next thirty days; The total number of employed and

unemployed workers in the population as a whole is estimated on the basis

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